Some examples of catastrophic injuries would be a brain injury, where the person has suffered some type of trauma to the head, and it permanently alters their ability to function, or to remain functioning as they were. You could have a loss of limb, spinal cord injuries. Those types of things are traumatic and permanent.
Also, some soft tissue injuries, such as a herniated disc in the spine, those are all permanent and catastrophic. While they may not cause a complete loss of function, they do limit function in the future, and it’s important to account for those and to hold the person, or persons, or companies, accountable that caused that injury.